The Tar Baby and the Tomahawk: Race and Ethnic Images in American Children's Literature, 1880-1939




Birch-bark Roll
of the
Containing their Constitution, Laws,
Games, and Deeds
New York
Doubleday, Page & Company

1st Edition in Ladies' Home Journal
Copyright, 1902, by

2d Edition
Copyright, 1903, by

3d Edition
Copyright, 1904, by

4th Edition in "Association Boys" for June
Copyright, 1905, by

5th Edition
Copyright, 1906, by


The Birch-Bark Roll
Of the Woodcraft Indians

THIS is a time when the whole nation is turning toward the outdoor life, seeking in it the physical regeneration so needful for continued national existence— is waking to the fact long known to thoughtful men, that those live longest who live nearest to the ground, that is, who live the simple life of primitive times, divested, however, of the evils that ignorance in those times begot.

Half our diseases are in our minds and half in our houses. We can safely leave the rest to the physicians for treatment.

Sport is the great incentive to outdoor life; nature study is the intellectual side of sport. Camping is the simple life reduced to actual practice, as well as the culmination of the outdoor life.

Camping has no great popularity to-day, because men have the idea that it is possible only after an expensive journey to the wilderness, and women that it is inconvenient, dirty, and dangerous.

These are errors. They have arisen because camping as an art is not understood. When intelligently
followed camp life must take its place as a cheap and delightful way of living as well as a mental and physical saviour of those strained and broken by the grind of the over-busy world.

Consumption, the white man's plague since he has become a house race, is vanquished by the sun and air, and many ills of the mind also are forgotten when the sufferer boldly takes to the life in tents.

The wilderness affords the ideal camping, but many of the benefits can be got by living in a tent pitched on a town lot, piazza, or even house-top.

I should like to lead this whole nation into the way of  living out-doors for at least a month each year, reviving and expanding a custom that as far back as Moses was deemed essential to the national well-being.

These bands have been organized to spread the taste for camping, by showing how it can be done to best advantage. They are simply outdoor clubs: the Indian name and style were given chiefly because they add the charms of color and romance, and because they are so appropriate.

When two or three young people camp out, they can live as a sort of family, especially if a grown-up be with them, but when a dozen or more go, it is necessary to organize.

There are four possible forms of government: First, the patriarchal, as above; it answers fairly for two or three, but fails with a considerable party. Second,
the school system, which, for several reasons, has not succeeded out of doors. Third, the Brigade, which many object to, chiefly because it fosters militarism; and last, the Tribal or Indian form.

Fundamentally this is a republic or limited monarchy, and has proved far the best. It makes its members self-governing. It offers appropriate things to do outdoors; it is so plastic that it can be adopted in whole or in part, at once or gradually; its picturesqueness takes immediate hold of the boys, and it lends itself so well to existing ideas that soon or late most camps are forced into its essentials, call them what they will.

No large band of boys ever yet camped out for a month without finding it necessary to recognize leaders, a senior form, or ruling set whose position rests on merit, some wise grown person to guide them in difficulties, and a place to display the emblems of the camp; that is, they have adopted the system of Chiefs, Council, Medicine-man and Totem-pole. Moreover, the ideal Indian, whether he ever existed or not, stands for the highest type of the primitive life, and he was a master of Woodcraft, which is our principal study. By Woodcraft we mean nature-study, certain kinds of hunting, and the art of camping, but we add all good outdoor athletics to our pursuits.

Photography is recognized as a branch of nature-study, and camper-craft is made to include the simplest
methods of triangulation, star-craft, finding one's way, telling direction, sign-language, as well as many branches of Indian-craft.

Two other important ideas underlie the scheme. The first is personal decoration for personal achievements; second, no competitive honors.* All our honors are bestowed according to world-wide standards.

In our colleges to-day every effort is made to discover and develop a champion. The great body of the students are neglected. That is, the ones who are in need of physical development do not get it, and those who do not need it are over developed. The result is much unsoundness of many kinds. A great deal of this would be avoided if we strive to bring all the individuals up to a certain standard. In our non-competitive tests the enemies are not "the other fellows," but time and space. We try not to down the others, but to raise ourselves. A thorough application of this principle would end many of the evils now demoralizing college athletics.

About one hundred and fifty deeds or exploits are recognized in these various departments, and the braves are given decorations that show what they have achieved. The plan aims to give the young people "something to do, something to think about, and something to enjoy in the woods," with a view always
* Prizes are not honors.

to character building, for manhood not scholarship is the first aim of education.

And we would make the outdoor the real life, the indoor the incident, reversing the present way.

We do not, however, disband when the camping season is over. As will be seen, ample provision is made in the games and honors for continuing the organization the whole year round. Most of the Tribes find abundant amusement throughout the winter in preparing their weapons, dress, teepees, ornaments, and songs for the summer camp.

By leading the young people along these lines we shall be helping the whole nation on the road to health.


First get the young people together, any number from ten up—fifteen to fifty are best for a beginning—and with them at least one experienced grown-up person, who will act as Medicine-man in the Council, and as teacher when needed.


  • Birch-bark Roll, or Book of Laws.
  • Blank book for tally.
  • Teepees or tents enough to house the Tribe.

  • set.1906.2012.001.014.jpg
  • A totem-pole.
  • A supply of scalps, at least one for each.
  • A supply of about 100 feathers or other honor tokens.
  • A red horse-tail for feather tips and medicine scalp.
  • A drum.
  • A target, and range.
  • Cooking outfit and food.
  • Also the things for the games they wish to play (see later), the Deer-hunt for land, and the Sturgeon spearing for water, being especially recommended.


  • 1 good 5-foot bow, complete with string.
  • 6 standard arrows, 25 in. long; 3 feathers, steel points.
  • 1 quiver of waterproof canvas.
  • 1 plain arm-guard.
  • 1 head band.
  • 1 pair trunks.
  • 1 waterproof sheet, 6 ft. x 5.
  • 2 woollen blankets.
  • To these he may add as much Indian costume as he likes. But costumes, feathers, etc., are non-essentials. Many tribes wear only the ordinary clothes of out-door life.





This organization shall be known as the * Tribe of Woodcraft (or Seton Indians as many have preferred to call themselves).



The objects of this organization are the promotion of interests in Out-of-Door Life and Woodcraft, the preservation of Wild Life and Landscape, and the promotion of Good Fellowship among its members.



SECTION I. Persons eligible for membership must be over        years of age (18 is usual for a grown-up tribe, 8 for a boy tribe, but some tribes take all ages).

SECTION II. The membership shall be limited to      .

SECTION III. Application for membership must be made in writing through one of the Council. The name of such applicant shall then be proposed and seconded by members in good standing, and shall be
* It is usual to select an Indian name of local application.

publicly posted for not less than seven suns. A ballot of the Tribe shall thereupon be taken and two black-balls shall exclude.



SECTION I. A monthly Council of the Tribe shall be held on the first Monday of each Moon.

SECTION II. The Annual Council for the election of officers shall be held on the first sun of the Awakening Moon (March).*

SECTION III. Special Councils may be called by the Chief, and must be called by him upon the written request of one fourth of the Council or one third of the Tribe.

SECTION IV. A majority shall be a quorum of the Council or Tribe.

* March—First, Awakening, or Crow Moon (blue).
April—Wild-goose or Green-grass Moon (green).
May—Song Moon (purple).
June—Rose Moon (rose).
July—Thunder Moon (copper).
August—Red or Green-corn Moon (red).
September—Hunting Moon (yellow).
October—Leaf-falling Moon (fiery).
November—Mad Moon (smoky).
December—Long-night Moon (black).
January—Snow Moon (white).
February—Hunger Moon or Wan Moon (pale or ashy).

[illustration - Red-trailers Standard
Flying Eagles Standard
6 inches 3in.

Section V. A member may vote at any Council of the Tribe by proxy in his own handwriting.


The Officers and Their Duties

HEAD WAR CHIEF. He should be strong as well as popular, because his duties are to lead and to enforce the laws. He is head of the Council and of the Tribe and also Herald or Crier.

He has charge of the standard of the Tribe. This is a staff about eight feet long, painted red and ornamented with any of the designs shown in the illustrations, the drawing on the shield being always the totem of the Tribe. The small shield on top is white with blue horns. This standard is carried around when a proclamation is being made. If the Chief deputes another to be Herald, he also gives him the standard to carry as a badge of authority.

When not thus in use it is stuck in the ground near the Chief's teepee or place in Council, or perhaps hung on the totem pole.

SECOND WAR CHIEF. To take the Head Chief's place when he is absent; otherwise he is merely a Councillor.

THIRD WAR CHIEF. For leader when the other two are away.


WAMPUM CHIEF. He has charge of the money and public property of the Tribe, except the records. He ought to have a lock box or small trunk to keep valuables in.

CHIEF OF THE PAINTED ROBE, OR FEATHER TALLY. He keeps the tribal records, including the Book of Laws, the Roster or Roll, the Winter Count or Record of Camps and Seasons, and the Feather Tally or Record of Honors and Exploits. He enters nothing except on instructions from the Council. He should be an artist.

CHIEF OF THE COUNCIL-FIRE. It is his exclusive privilege to make fire. He must do it without matches. He must also see that the camp and woods are kept clean.

Sometimes one Councillor or Chief holds more than one of these last three offices; especially it is well to have the Head Chief also Chief of the Council Fire.

One or even two Medicine-men may be voted into the Council without regard to age, attainments, or position.

Add to these not more than twelve elected Councillors, and all the Sachems or Sagamores. (See p. 46.) These officers and Councillors form the governing body.

All disputes, etc., are settled by the Chief and the Council. The Council makes the laws and fixes the dues. The Chief enforces the laws.

All officers are elected for one year or until their
successors are chosen. The election to take place on or as soon as possible after Spring Day, the first Sun of the Awakening Moon (1st March).

(Whenever in doubt we try to follow the National Constitution.)

Vow of the Head Chief

(To be signed with his name and totem in the Tally-book)

I solemnly promise to maintain the Laws, to see fair play in all the doings of the Tribe, and to protect the weak.

Vow of Each Brave on Joining

(To be signed with the name and totem of each in the Tally-book)

I solemnly promise that I will obey the Chief and Council of my Tribe, and if I fail in my duty I will appear before the Council when ordered and submit without murmuring to their decision.


SECTION I. Amendments to this Constitution may be made at any meeting by a two-thirds vote of all the Tribe.

SECTION II. Notice of proposed amendments shall be made public for at least seven suns before the meeting.




SECTION I. Dues shall be, first,       a year; second, all assessments made by the Council for tribal property; and third, when necessary the Council shall assess those taking part in camp.

SECTION II. The initiation fee for new braves shall be        , which shall include the first year's dues, but this shall not include assessments.


Council of Tribe
The doings of the Tribe in Council shall be considered confidential.



  • 1. Don't rebel. Rebellion by any one against any decision of the Council is punishable by expulsion. Absolute obedience is always enforced.
  • 2. Don't kindle a wild fire. To start a wild fire— that is, to set the woods or prairie afire—is a crime against the State, as well as the Tribe. Never leave a fire in camp without some one to watch it.
  • 3. Protect the song-birds. It is forbidden to kill or injure or frighten song-birds, or to disturb their nests
    or eggs, or to molest squirrels. (This does not apply to creatures declared vermin by law.)
  • 4. Don't make a dirty camp. Keep the woods and streams clean by burying all garbage.
  • 5. Don't bring firearms of any kind into the camps of those under fourteen. Bows and arrows are enough for their needs. Never point a weapon at any one.
  • 6. Keep the game laws.
  • 7. No smoking (for those under eighteen).
  • 8. No firewater in camp.
  • 9. Play fair. Cheating in the games or records, or wearing honors not conferred by the Council, are crimes.
  • 10. Word of honor is sacred.

Punishments are meted out by the Chief and Council after a hearing of the case. They consist of,— Exclusion from the games or boats for a time. Of reduction in rank or of fines. The extreme penalty is banishment from the Tribe.


The Head Chief, or the Herald he may appoint, walks around with the standard announcing that a Council is to be held, and all must come to Council.

  • Opening Council.
  • Roll-call.
  • Tally of last Council and Report of Tally Chief.

  • set.1906.2012.001.022.jpg
  • Report of Wampum Chief.
  • Report of Scouts.
  • Left-over business.
  • Complaints.
  • Honors awarded.
  • New Braves.
  • New business.
  • Challenges, etc.
  • Social doings, songs, dances, stories.
  • Closing Council.


The Totem of the whole nation of Woodcraft Indians is the White Buffalo head, symbolized by the Horned White Shield.

Each band needs a totem of its own in addition. This is selected by the Council, and should be something easy to draw. Each brave adds a private totem of his own, usually a drawing of his Indian name.

The first of these Tribes took as its totem a Blue Buffalo, and so became the Blue Buffalo Band, and Deerfoot, the Chief, uses the Blue Buffalo totem with his own added underneath.

Any bird, animal, tree, or flower will do. It is all the better if it have some special reason.

One Tribe set out on a long journey to look for a totem. They agreed to take the first living wild thing
that they saw and knew the name of. They travelled all one day and saw nothing to suit, but next day in a swamp they startled a Blue Heron. It went off with a harsh cry. So they became the "Blue Herons," and adopted as a war-cry the croak of the bird and its name—"Hrrrrr—Blue Heron." Another band have the Wolf totem. Another, the Flying Eagle, and yet another the Snapping Turtle.

In some prominent place in camp is set up the Totem-pole. This bears the national emblems, tribal totems, enemies' scalps, and the totems of warriors who have brought honors to the Tribe. It also serves as a notice board and carries the Sacred Medicine Scalp. The board below is supposed to be the skin of a White Buffalo.

The big shield is white and twenty inches across, the horns pale blue and each twenty inches long. The pole is twelve feet high and the arms four and one half feet across; pole and arms are red. This is the same in all tribes. The smaller shield is twelve inches across; it bears the tribal colors and totems, and, of course, varies in color with each tribe. The skin is four and one half feet long and eighteen inches at widest place. It is dull yellow where dotted, but the circle at its upper end is white; in the middle of this is a peg on which
hangs the Medicine Scalp; the wooden feathers are white with black tips. If made smaller it should keep these same proportions.


Each brave aims at winning a name. These Indian names are a sort of honorable nickname given in recognition of some exploit or personal gift. Thus Deerfoot was the great runner and Hawkeye had the sharp eyes. Killdeer was famous in our deer hunt, as also was Deerslayer; Gray-wolf was the best scout; Eel-scout was the one who slipped through the enemies' lines as often as he pleased; Little Beaver was the best worker; Chicadee was the smallest; the noisy chatterer, forever showing off without doing any work, was called Bluejay; Spycatchcer was given to a warrior who captured a Hostile Spy by a deed of unusual daring; one small boy whose tears were ever ready to flow was named Rain-in-the-Face, and an awkward brave who upset the canoe several times was called Tippecanoe.

When a brave has an objectionable nickname he can get rid of it by doing some great exploit. The chief then writes the old name on a piece of birch bark and publicly burns it in the camp-fire. After that it is forgotten; no one may use or mention it. Then the warrior is given his new name of honor. The following have been bestowed as distinctions:—


"Black Hawk," "Redjacket," "Wolverine," "Krag," "Mustang," "Bald Eagle," "Big Otter," "Karonawa" (the runner), "Speardeep," "Deerblinder," "Little Thunder," "Neverscare," "Strongheart," "Big Moose," "Redarrow," "Manytongues," "Strongbow," "Eagle Eye," "Hawkeye," "Little Beaver," etc.

On rare occasions the name is an inglorious one. Thus a lazy boy was called "Young-man-afraid-of-a-Shovel," or "Shovel" for short; another was "Scare-cat," because of his timidity, but they can get rid of them as soon as they do something highly creditable.

When the Council decides that a bad name is to be dropped, the Chief or Medicine-man writes it on a piece of wood or bark. Then, making a speech explaining the circumstances, he burns the bark in the Council Fire, announcing that that name is forgotten. No one must mention it again under pain of punishment.

When a new name is given, the Chief makes a speech as before, tells of the exploit and announces the name. It is written down in the Tally; then each Chief and Councillor comes forward, shakes hands with the brave, saying "Bo-jou, Nichy"—followed by the new name.


Each brave needs a head-band. This holds his feathers as they are won, and his scalp is fastened to it behind. It consists of a strip of soft leather, long
enough to go around the head and overlap by two inches; it is fastened at the rear, with a lace through the four holes, like the lace of machine belting. A bead pattern ornaments the front and it may be finished at each side in some broader design. It is the foundation for the war-bonnet and has places for twenty-four feathers (two eagle tails).

The feathers are made of white Pond-eagle* quill feathers, the tip dyed dark brown or black; a leather loop is lashed to the quill end of each to fasten it on to the head-band. Each feather stands for an exploit and is awarded by the Council. (See p. 45, etc.) An oval of paper is glued on near the high end. This bears a symbol of the feat it commemorates. If it was Grand Coup or High Honor, the feather has a tuft of red horsehair lashed on the top.


As each feather is won it is fastened in the head-band and thus forms part of the war-bonnet.

The feathers are held in place on the band by a lace through the bottom loop to hold them to the body of the cap, and another lace around them higher up. When the circle is complete the upper lace is not needed; instead is a stout thread through the
* Pond-eagle—white goose feathers made up in imitation of eagle feathers.

[illustration - Councillor. ] middle of each midrib, stringing them together and holding them the right distance apart.

The war-bonnet is the most important of all decorations. It is a complete record of the owner's exploits, as well as a splendid ornament. The making of it is fully described in The Ladies' Home Journal for July, 1902, and in "Two Little Savages."


One cannot always wear the war-bonnet, and yet may wish to wear a visible record of his rank. To meet this need we have a badge adapted from an old Iroquois silver brooch.

In this the White or Silver Buffalo head represents the whole nation. The owner can put his initials on the Buffalo's forehead, if desired.

To pin in the middle is the real Indian style. To fasten the brooch, throw back the pin, work a pucker of the coat through the opening from behind; when it sticks out far enough bend it to one side and pierce it with the pin, then press the pin down and work the pucker back smooth. This can never work loose or get lost.

The rank of the wearer is thus shown:—

The ordinary brave as soon as admitted wears the simple badge.

Every one in the Council may add a beard to the
Buffalo, using silk, wool, or thread through the nostrils.

The Head Chief wears a horned shield. On the circle of the shield is engraved the totem of the Tribe.

The horns are worn only by a War Chief. The following shows their importance:—

"No one wears the headdress surmounted with horns except the dignitaries who are very high in authority, and whose exceeding valor, worth, and power are admitted by all the nation.

"This man (Mah-to-toh-pa) was the only man in the nation who was allowed to wear the horns, and all, I found, looked upon him as the leader who had the power to lead all the warriors in time of war." (Catlin, Vol. I, p. 103.)

The second and third War Chiefs wear the same badge as the first, except that it has the lower half of the shield hidden with a lashing of colored thread.

The Medicine-man's badge has a shield without horns.


These medals are made of very beautiful shells, flat and cut in two sizes, the largest being about one inch by three quarters of an inch. They are engraved with the symbol of the deed for which given. They make decorations for the coat, the head-band or necklace, etc. They are awarded according to the standards
for coups and grand coups given later. They do not take the place of the feathers, but repeat the honor in another form. Thus a brave may wear both the eagle feather and the wampum medal for one feat.


Each brave wears a long tuft of black horsehair that answers as his scalp. The skin of this should be about one and a half inches across; it is furnished with a cord loop; the hair is as long as possible. This scalp is presented to the brave on entering the Tribe. After he has promised obedience and allegiance and signed the roll, the Medicine-man gives it to him, saying:—

"This is your scalp. Treasure this as your honor. You may lose it without absolute disgrace, but not without some humiliation."

He can lose it only in an important competition, approved by the Council, in which he stakes his scalp against that of some other brave. If he loses he surrenders his tuft to the winner and goes tuftless until the Council thinks proper to give him a new scalp. But he never gets back the old one, which remains the property of the winner for a teepee or other decoration.

The brave without tuft cannot vote or sit in Council or take part in the competitions.

[illustration - TEEPEES Thunder Bull's Teepee (Cheyenne)
Gray Wolf (Crow)

The member is a brave till he has taken a scalp, after that he is a warrior.


The Indian teepee has the advantage of picturesqueness, also of comfort in cold weather, because it admits of an open fire inside. It has the disadvantages of allowing some rain to enter through the smoke-vent in very wet weather. A twelve-foot teepee (needing fourteen poles), big enough for half a dozen boys, can be made for three dollars, plus labor (see "Two Little Savages"), or it can be bought ready made for about thrice that.

There is one great evil that campers should beware of, that is rheumatism. But none need suffer if they will take the simple precaution of changing their wet clothes when not in action and never sleeping directly on the ground. A warm, dry place for the bed should be prepared in every tent and teepee.

An adapted teepee that is rain-proof is among those now on the market, or the old-fashioned teepee may be improved with a three-foot "bull boat" or storm-cap of canvas, to cover the ends of the poles.

Tents of any good kind will answer, but they do not admit of a fire within. They are, however, excellent for storage. A tent painted teepee-fashion may be made very picturesque.

[illustration - No. 1. No. 2. No. 3.
No. 4. No. 5. No. 6.
No. 7. No. 8. No. 9.
Various Tepees (Smoke-Poles left out).

[illustration - B P A O D
Door Door Smoke-flap 1
2 ft. 4 ft. 1 ft. 5 ft.
Scale six feet
Smoke-flap 2
Scale six feet
Pattern of 10-Foot Teepee. The Complete Teepee Cover—Unornamented. A—Frame for Door. B—Door Completed. ]

[illustration - scalp-lock (of Horsehair) 14 feet high here Beads & Horsehair scalp-lock Totem Horse-tails 16 1/2 feet high here Beads & Horsehair scalp-lock 54 feet around 27 peg-loops scale 8 feet 15 Thunder Bull's Teepee. 21 Decorations of a Teepee and Two Examples of Doors. ]
[illustration - RED C RED GREEN YEL. DOOR RED — All parts marked so: . Smoke-flaps and all tops of teepees, stem of pipe, lower half-circle under pipe, middle part of bowl, wound on side of Elk, blood falling and on trail; Horse, middle Buffalo, two Inner bars of pathway up back; also short, dark crossbars, spot on middle of two door-hangers, and fringe of totem at top of pathway, and two black lines on doorway. YELLOW — All parts marked so: . Upper half-circle under pipe stem, upper half of each feather on pipe; horseman with bridle, saddle and one hind foot of Horse; the largest Buffalo, the outside upright of the pathway; the ground colors of the totem; the spotted crossbars of pathway: the four patches next the ground, the two patches over door, and the rings of door-hanger. GREEN—All parts marked so: . Bowl of pipe, spot over it; feather tips of same; Elk, first buffalo, middle line on each side pathway, and around teepee top; two dashed crossbars on totem and dashed crossbars on pathway; bar on which Horse walks; lower edge and line of spots on upper part of door. ]
[illustration - TEEPEES
Crow (Catlin) Blackfoot (Catlin) Cree Omaha

The drawing (p. 26) shows a real Sioux teepee at present in my collection.

This was made of skins. The ground color was of soft gray; the design in pale flat tints of delicate red, yellow, and green, as below. No other outlines were used.

Putting up the Teepee. Drive a small stake in the ground where the centre of the teepee will come, and about this as centre mark a circle, the same diameter as the tent. For a twelve-foot teepee, a twelve-foot circle, etc.

With one end of a twenty-foot rope tie together three of the poles at a point as high as the top of the canvas. Set them as a tripod, their ends touching the edge of the circle. Then set up the other poles (except three, including the two slender ones) for the frame of the teepee, their ends on the circumference of the circle, their tops resting in the angles of the tripod. Now with the loose end of the twenty-foot rope bind all the poles where they cross by walking several times around the frame on the outside, and drawing the rope tight as you go. The loose end may be left hanging down inside for an anchor.

Now fasten the top of the teepee cover to one of the poles left over, at a point twelve feet up. Raise this into its place, and the teepee cover with it, opposite where the door is to be. Carry the two wings of the tent around till they overlap and fasten together with
the lacing-pins. Put the end of a vent-pole in each of the vent-flap pockets, outside of the teepee. Peg down the edges of the canvas at each loop if a storm is coming, otherwise a few will do. Hang the door on a convenient lacing-pin. Drive a stout stake inside the teepee, tie the anchor rope to this and the teepee is ready for weather. In the centre dig a hole eighteen inches wide and six inches deep for the fire. The fire is the great advantage of the teepee, and the smoke one of the disadvantages, but experience will show how to manage this. Keep the smoke-vent swung down wind, or at least quartering down. Sometimes you must leave the door a little open or raise the bottom of the teepee cover a little on the windward side. If this makes too much draft on your back stretch a piece of canvas between two or three of the poles inside the teepee, in front of the opening made, and reaching to the ground. This is alining or dew-cloth. The draft will go up behind this.


All students of the Indian art are satisfied that in this we find the beginnings of something that may develop into a great and original school of decoration. Not having learned their traditions, conventions, and inner impulse, we believe that
at present we shall do best by preserving and closely copying the best of the truly native productions.

Therefore, in decorating teepees, etc., we use only literal copies of the good Indian work.


We encourage musical talent as much as possible. Around the nightly camp-fire songs and music are in great demand. The drum is essential also for the numerous song-dances and song-plays.


The Tribe should own a Standard Target, that is, four feet across, circular, made of straw, with a thin oilcloth cover, marked with a nine and six-tenths inch centre of gold (called by some of our Tribes "the Buffalo's Eye"); outside of that a four and eight-tenths inch band of red, next a similar band of blue, next of black, next of white. In scoring, the gold is 9, the red 7, the blue 5, the black 3, the white 1. The shortest match range for the target is forty yards. If it is a three-foot target the match range is reduced to thirty yards.

A target can be made of a burlap sack about five feet square. This should be stuffed full of hay or straw, then flattened by a few quilting stitches put right through with a long packing needle. On this the target is painted of exact right size and color.

[illustration - Wooden legged Deer ]

Each brave should have a bow that pulls from ten pounds up; about one pound for each year of his age is a safe guide for boys up to sixteen. He should have at least six arrows and a quiver. The arrows twenty-five inches long, with three feathers, cone-points of steel or iron; brass points are useless. A guard or bracer for the left wrist is needed, and most boys require a glove to protect the fingers of the right hand.

The correct way to shoot with a bow is fully set forth in "Two Little Savages."



The Deer Hunt has proved one of our most successful games.

The Deer is a dummy, best made with a wire frame, on which soft hay is wrapped till it is of proper size and shape, then all is covered with open burlap. A few touches of white and black make it very realistic.

If time docs not admit of a well-finished Deer, one can be made of a sack stuffed with hay, decorated at one end with a smaller sack for head and neck, and set on four thin sticks.

The side of the Deer is marked with a large oval, and over the heart is a smaller one.

Bows and arrows only are used to shoot this deer.

A pocket full of corn, peas, or other large grain is now needed for scent. The boy who is the Deer for
[illustration -

Burlap Deer 3 ft. high
18 in. 12 in. 24 in. 30 in. wire frame
] the first hunt takes the dummy under his arm and runs off, getting ten minutes start, or until he comes and shouts "ready!" He leaves a trail of corn, dropping two or three grains for every yard and making the trail as crooked as he likes, playing such tricks as a Deer would do to baffle his pursuers. Then he rides the Deer in any place he fancies, but not among rocks or on the top of a ridge, because in one case many arrows would be broken, and in the other, lost.

The hunters now hunt for this Deer just as for a real Deer, either following the trail or watching the woods ahead; the best hunters combine the two. If at any time the trail is quite lost the one in charge shouts "Lost Trail!" After that the one who finds the trail scores two. Any one giving a false alarm by shouting "Deer" is fined five.

Thus they go till some one finds the Deer. He shouts "Deer!" and scores ten for finding it. The others shout "Second," "Third," etc., in order of seeing it, but they do not score.

The finder must shoot at the Deer with his bow and arrow from the very spot whence he saw it. If he misses, the second hunter may step up five paces, and have his shot. If he misses, the third one goes five, and so on till some one hits the Deer, or until the ten-yard limit is reached. If the finder is within ten yards on sighting the Deer, and misses his shot, the other hunters go back to the ten-yard limit. Once the
Deer is hit, all the shooting must be from the exact spot whence the successful shot was fired.

A shot in the big oval is a body wound; that scores five. A shot outside that is a scratch; that scores two. A shot in the small oval or heart is a heart wound; it scores ten, and ends the hunt. Arrows which do not stick do not count, unless it can be proved that they passed right through, in which case they take the highest score that they pierced.

If all the arrows are used and none in the heart, the Deer escapes, and the boy who was Deer scores twenty-five.

The one who found the dummy is Deer for the next hunt. A clever Deer can add greatly to the excitement of the game.

Originally we used paper for scent, but found it bad. It littered the woods, yesterday's trail was confused with that of to-day, etc. Corn proved better, because the birds and the squirrels kept it cleaned up from day to day, and thus the ground was always ready for a fresh start. But the best of all is the hoof mark for the shoe. These iron hoof marks are fast to a pair of shoes, and leave a trail much like a real Deer. This has several advantages. It gives the hunter a chance to tell where the trail doubled, and which way the Deer was going. It is more realistic, and a boy who can follow this skilfully can follow a living Deer. In actual practice it is found well to
[illustration - Claw
Bear-claw Necklace
use a little corn with this on the hard places, a plan quite consistent with realism, as every hunter will recall.



This is played by half a dozen or more boys. Each has a club about the size and shape of a base ball club, but made of straw tied around two or three switches and tightly sewn up in burlap.

One big fellow is selected for the Bear. He has a school-bag tightly strapped on his back, and in that a toy balloon fully blown up. This is his heart. On his neck is a bear-claw necklace of wooden beads and claws. (See cut.)

[illustration - Straw Club ]

He has three dens about one hundred yards apart in a triangle. While in his den the Bear is safe. If the den is a tree or rock, he is safe while touching it. He is obliged to come out when the chief hunter counts 100, and must go the rounds of the three till the hunt is settled.

The object of the hunters is to break the balloon or heart, that is, kill the Bear. He must drop dead when the heart bursts. The hunter who kills him claims the necklace.

But the Bear also has a club for defence. Each hunter must wear a hat, and once the Bear knocks a hunter's hat off, that one is dead and out of this hunt. He must drop where his hat falls.

Tackling of any kind is forbidden.

The Bear wins by killing or putting to flight all the hunters. In this case he keeps the necklace.

The savageness of these big Bears is indescribable. Many lives are lost in each hunt, and it has several times happened that the whole party of hunters has been exterminated by some monster of unusual ferocity.

This game has also been developed into a play.


This water game is exceedingly popular and is especially good for public exhibition, being spectacular and full of amusement and excitement.

[illustration - The Wooden Sturgeon Weight for ballast The Spearhead ]

The outfit needed is:—

(1) A Sturgeon roughly formed of soft wood; it should be about seven feet long and nearly a foot thick at the head. It may be made realistic, or a small log pointed at both ends will serve.

(2) Two spears with six-inch steel heads and wooden handles (about four feet long). The points should be sharp, but not the barbs. Each head should have an eye to which is attached twenty feet of one-quarter inch rope. On each rope, six feet from the spearhead, is a fathom-mark made by tying on a rag or cord.

(3) Two boats with crews. Each crew consists of a Spearman, who is captain, and one or two oarsmen or paddlers, of which the after one is the pilot. All should be expert swimmers or else wear life belts during the game.

The Game. Each boat has a base or harbor; this is a given part of shore opposite that of the enemy. The Sturgeon is left by the Medicine-man's canoe at a point midway between the bases. At the word "Go!" each boat leaves its base and, making for the Sturgeon, tries to spear it, then drag it by the line to his base. When both get their spears into it the contest becomes a tug of war until one of the spears pulls out.

The Sturgeon is landed when the prow of the boat that has it in tow touches its proper base, even though the spear of the enemy is then in the fish; or it is landed
when the fish itself touches base. The boats change bases after each heat.

Matches are usually for one, three, or five Sturgeon. Points are counted only for the landing of the fish, but the Medicine-man may give the decision on a foul or a succession of fouls, or the delinquent may be set back one or more boat lengths.

Sometimes the game is played in canoes or boats, with one man as Spearman and crew.

Rules. It is not allowed to push the Sturgeon into a new position with the spear or paddle before striking.

It is allowed to pull the Sturgeon under the boat or pass it around by using the line after spearing.

It is allowed to lay hands on the other boat to prevent a collision, but otherwise it is forbidden to touch the other boat or crew or paddle or spear or line, or to lay hands on the fish, or to touch it with the paddle or oar, or touch your own spear while it is in the fish, or to tie the line around the fish except so far as this may be accidentally done in spearing.

It is allowed to dislodge the enemy's spear by throwing your own over it. The purpose of the barbs is to assist in this.

It is allowed to run onto the Sturgeon with the boat.

It is absolutely forbidden to throw over the other boat or over the heads of your crew.

In towing the Sturgeon the fathom-mark must be over the gunwale—at least six feet of line should be
out when the fish is in tow. It is not a foul to have less, but the Spearman must at once let it out if the umpire or the other crew cries "fathom!"

The Spearman is allowed to drop the spear and use the paddle or oar at will, but not to resign his spear to another of the crew. The Spearman must be in his boat when the spear is thrown.

If a boat is upset the Medicine-man's canoe helps them to right.

Each crew must accept the backset of its accidents.


For this we usually have two boats or war canoes manned by four men each. These are a Spearman, who is also Captain, a Pilot, and two Oarsmen.

The Spearman is armed with a light pole or bamboo twelve feet long, with a soft pad on the end. Sometimes this is further provided with a hook. This is a forked branch with limbs a foot long; one is lashed to the bamboo, the other projecting out a foot, and slightly backward. The end of the spear and the fork are now thoroughly padded with burlap to the shape of a Duck's head and bill. And it is all the better if cased in waterproof, as this keeps it from getting wet and heavy. The object of the hook is to change suddenly from pushing, and to pull the enemy by hooking round his neck. Each boat should have a
quarter-deck or raised platform at one end, on which the Spearman stands.

[illustration - Head of Tilting Shear Frame Finished ]

The battle is fought in rounds and by points.

To put your opponent back into the canoe with one foot counts you 5; two feet, 10. If he loses his spear you count 5 (excepting when he is put overboard). If you put him down on one knee on the fighting deck, you count 5; two knees, 10. If you put him overboard it counts 25. One hundred points is a round.

A battle is for one or more rounds, as agreed on.

It is forbidden to hook or strike below the belt.

The umpire may dock for fouls.


Any number of canoes or boats may engage in this. A rubber cushion, a hot-water bag full of air, any rubber
football, or a cotton bag with a lot of corks in it, is needed. The game is to tag the other canoe by throwing this into it.

The rules are as in ordinary cross-tag.


Scouts are sent out in pairs or singly. A number of points are marked on the map at equal distances from camp, and the scouts draw straws to see who goes where. If one place is obviously hard, the scout is allowed a fair number of points as handicap. All set out at same time, go direct, and return as soon as possible.

Points are thus allowed:—

Last back, zero for travelling.

The others count one for each minute they are ahead of the last.

Points up to 100 are allowed for their story on return.

Sometimes we allow 10 points for each Turtle they bring back; 10 for each Owl seen and properly named; 5 for each Hawk, and 1 each for other wild birds; also 2 for a Cat; 1 for a Dog.

No information is given the scout; he is told to go to such a point and do so and so, but is fined points if he hesitates or asks how or why, etc.

[illustration - Quicksight Game


Each competitor is given a long, straight stick, in daytime, and told to lay it due north and south. In doing this he may guide himself by sun, moss, or anything he can find in nature,—anything, indeed, except a compass.

The direction is checked by a good compass corrected for the locality. The one who comes nearest wins.

It is optional with the judges whether the use of a time-piece is to be allowed.


Make two boards about a foot square, divide each into twenty-five squares; get ten nuts and ten pebbles. Give to one player one board, five nuts, and five pebbles.
He places these on the squares in any pattern he fancies, and when ready the other player is allowed to see it for five seconds. Then it is covered up, and from the memory of what he saw the second player must reproduce the pattern on his own board. He counts one for each that was right, and takes off one for each that was wrong. They take turn and turn about.

This game is a wonderful developer of the power to see and memorize quickly.


Take two six-inch squares of stiff white pasteboard or whitened wood. On each of these draw an outline Rabbit, one an exact duplicate of the other. Make twenty round black wafers or spots, each half an inch across. Let one player stick a few of these on one Rabbit-board and set it up in full light. The other, beginning at one hundred yards, draws near till he can see the spots well enough to reproduce the pattern on the other which he carries. If he can do it at seventy-five yards he has wonderful eyes. Down even to seventy he counts grand coup; from seventy to sixty counts coup. Below that does not count at all.


The game of Rabbit-hunting is suited for two hunters in limited grounds.


Three little sacks of brown burlap, each about eight inches by twelve, are stuffed with hay.

At any given place in the woods the two hunters stand in a ten-foot circle with their bows and arrows. One boy is blind-folded; the other, without leaving the circle, throws the Rabbits into good hiding places on the ground. Then the second hunter has to find the Rabbits and shoot them without leaving the circle. The lowest number of points wins, as in Golf. If the hunter has to leave the circle he gets one point for every step he takes outside. After he sees the Rabbit he must keep to that spot and shoot till it is hit once. One shot kills it, no matter where struck. For every shot he misses he gets five points.

After his first shot at each Rabbit the hider takes alternate shots with him.

If it is the hider who kills the Rabbit, the hunter adds ten points to his score. If the hunter hits it, he takes ten off his score.

If the hunter fails to find all the Rabbits he scores twenty-five for each one he gives up.

The hider cannot score at all. He can only help his friend into trouble. Next time the two change places.

A match is usually for two brace of Rabbits.



Hanging from the Totem-pole is a red or yellow horsetail. This is the Grand Medicine Scalp of the Tribe. The Hostile Spy has to steal it. The Medicine-man goes around on the morning of the day and whispers to various braves, "Look out—there's a spy in camp." At length he gets secretly near the one he has selected for Spy and whispers, "Look out, there's a spy in camp, and you are it." He gives him at the same time some bright-colored badge, that he must wear as soon as he has secured the Medicine Scalp. He must not hide the scalp on his person, but keep it in view. He has all day till sunset to get away with it. If he gets across the river or other limit, with warriors in close pursuit, they give him ten arrowheads (two and one half cents each), or other ransom agreed on. If he gets away safely and hides it, he can come back and claim fifteen arrow-heads from the Council as ransom for the scalp. If he is caught he pays his captor ten arrow-heads ransom for his life.


This is played with a Scout and ten or more Hostiles, or hounds, according to the country, more when it is rough or wooded.

The Scout is given a letter addressed to the "Military
Commandant"* of any given place a mile or two away. He is told to take the letter to any one of three given houses, and get it endorsed, with the hour when he arrived, then return to the starting point within a certain time.

The Hostiles are sent to a point half way, and let go by a starter at the same time as the Scout leaves the Camp. They are to intercept him.

If they catch him before he delivers the letter he must ransom his life by paying each two arrow-heads (or other forfeit) and his captor keeps the letter as a trophy. If he gets through, but is caught on the road back, he pays half as much for his life. If he gets through, but is over time, it is a draw. If he gets through successfully on time he claims three arrowheads from each Hostile and keeps the letter as a trophy.

They may not follow him into the house (that is, the Fort), but may surround it at one hundred yards distance, or nearer if they do not show themselves. They do not know which three houses he is free to enter, but they do know that these are within certain narrow limits.

The Scout should wear a conspicuous badge (hat, shirt, coat, or feather,) and may ride a wheel or go in a wagon etc., as long as his badge is clearly visible.

*The "Military Commandant" is usually the lady of the house that he gets to.


To "tag" the Scout is not to capture. "The blockade to be binding must be effectual."


These exploits are intended to distinguish those braves who are first class in their department and those who are so good that they may be considered in the record-making class. They may be called Honors and High Honors, but the Plains Indians speak of their exploits as Coup (pronounced coo) and Grand Coup. The Sioux, I am informed, use the French word coup, but call them "Jus-tee-na coo" and "Tonka coo," the "Little Deed," and the "Big Deed."

The decoration for a Coup or Honor is a Pond-eagle feather for the war-bonnet, or a wampum medal for the coat, or both.

For the High Honor or Grand Coup the Pond-eagle feather has a red tuft of horsehair on the top, and the wampum medal is of double size with a circle around the symbol.

No one can count both Coup and Grand Coup, or repeat their honor in the same department, except for Heroism, Mountain-climbing, and others that are specified as "repeaters," in which each honor is added to that previously worn.

No honors are conferred unless the exploit has been
properly witnessed or proven, as though for the Century Bar of the L.A.W. Honors are allowed according to the standard of the year in which the application was made.

An honor once won can never be lost for subsequent failure to reach the standard.

Except when otherwise stated the exploits are meant for all ages.

Any brave making Coup according to the class above him may count it a Grand Coup in his own class, unless otherwise provided.


Those with 12 Coups are Sub-Sachems.

Those who have won 24 Coups, that is, who have completed the circle of feathers in their headdress, are Sachems.

Those with 24 Grand Coups are Grand Sachems.

Those with 48 Coups, that is, who have completed both circle and tail of the headdress, are Sagamores.

Those with 48 Grand Coups are Grand Sagamores.

All of these except the Sub-Sachems are entitled to sit in the Council without election.

They are Red, White, or Blue Sagamores or Sachems, according to the class in which they have won most honors, and they rank in the order here given.



  • 1. Honors are allowed for saving a human life at risk of one's own; it is a coup or grand coup, at the discretion of the Council.
  • 2. A soldier's war medals count for a grand coup each.
  • 3. Courage. The measure of courage has not yet been discovered.


  • 4. Come to camp through strange woods from a point one mile off and return in 30 minutes, for coup; in 20 for grand coup.
  • 5. Light 15 camp fires in succession with 15 matches, all at different places, all with stuff found in the woods by the boy himself, one at least to be on a wet day, for coup; if all 15 are done on wet days, or if he does 30, of which two are on wet days, it counts grand coup.
  • 6. Light a fire with fire drill or rubbing sticks, with material of one's own gathering, counts a coup; to do it in one minute counts a grand coup.
  • 7. To chop down three 6-inch trees in succession in 60 seconds each, throwing them to drive each a given stake, coup; in 45 seconds each, grand coup.

  • set.1906.2012.001.056.jpg
  • 8. Know and name 15 star groups, for coup; know 20 star groups and tell the names and something about at least one star in each, for grand coup.
  • 9. Take the latitude from the stars at night with a cartwheel, or some home-made instrument, three times from different points, within two degrees of average error, for coup; one degree for grand coup.
  • 10. To measure the height of 10 trees without climbing, or 10 distances across a river, etc., without crossing, within 10 per cent of average error, for coup; 5 per cent for grand coup. Tools, an axe and a pocket rule only.
  • 11. To guess one inch, one foot, one yard, one rod, one acre, 100 yards, 200 yards, one-quarter mile, one-half mile, and a mile, within 20 per cent of average error, for coup; 10 per cent for grand coup.
  • 12. To guess the height of 10 trees or other high things, and the weight of 10 stones or other things ranging from one ounce to 100 pounds, within 10 per cent of average error, for coup; 5 per cent for grand coup.
  • 13. Camper. A coup for passing 30 successive days out of doors, never once sleeping under shingles, but in tent, teepee, or bivouac, every night. A grand coup for 60 days of the same.
  • 14. Lone tramper. A coup for travelling alone on foot, 100 miles, carrying one's outfit, sleeping out every night; a grand coup for 200 miles.
  • 15. Gang-tramper. A coup for travelling 150 miles
    on foot with a party, carrying one's own outfit, sleeping out every night; a grand coup for 250 miles.
  • 16. Traveller. A grand coup for having passed the Royal Geographical Society's examination of "expert traveller."
  • 17. Arctic traveller. A coup for entering the Arctic circle by sea; a grand coup by land.
  • 18. Tropic traveller. A coup for crossing the equator by sea or rail; a grand coup on foot.
  • 19. Red Cross. A grand coup for having passed the Red Cross examination of first aid to the wounded.
  • 20. Boat-builder. Build a boat that will carry two men and that can be paddled, rowed or sailed by them 6 miles an hour, coup; 7 miles an hour, grand coup.
  • 21. To have made a birch canoe that has travelled, with at least one man aboard, 100 miles or more in safety, grand coup.
  • 22. Expert canoeman. A coup is allowed to those who can paddle (single) a canoe on dead water, make their canoe coup (see No. 68), spill the canoe and get into her again, and bale her alone; a grand coup when they make their canoe coup, spill, right, and bale the canoe alone, three times in succession, and have run a rapid that falls six feet in 200 yards.
  • 23. In sign-talking, to know and use correctly 50 signs, for coup; 100 signs, grand coup.
  • 24. Knots. To make 20 different standard knots in a rope, for coup; 30 for grand coup.

  • set.1906.2012.001.058.jpg
  • 25. Tread a sawlog 100 yards in any time, without going overboard, for coup; do it 100 yards and back in 30 minutes for grand coup.

By Dr. Henry Van Dyke, author of Little Rivers, Fisherman's Luck, Etc.

  • 26. BOYS: To make a 6-foot leader of clean gut, with smooth knots, to stand a strain of 5 lbs., coup. To tie 6 different flies, of regular patterns, on number 8-12 hooks, and take trout with each of them, by daylight casting, in clear water, grand coup. Lads: To make a bait rod of 3 joints, straight and sound, 14 oz. or less in weight, 10 feet or less in length, to stand a strain of 1 1/2 lbs. at the tip, 13 lbs. at the grip, coup. To make a jointed fly-rod 8-10 feet long, 4-6 ozs. in weight, capable of casting a fly 60 feet, grand coup.
  • 27. BOYS AND LADS: To take with the fly, unassisted, a 3-lb. trout or black bass, on a rod not more than 5 oz. in weight, coup. To take a 5-lb. trout or black bass or a 4-lb. landlocked salmon under the same conditions, grand coup.
  • 28. BOYS AND LADS: To take on a rod, without
    assistance in hooking, playing, or landing, a trout, black bass, pike, muscallonge, grayling, salmon, bluefish, weakfish, striped bass, kingfish, sheepshead, or other game fish, whose weight in pounds equals or exceeds that of the rod in ounces, coup. To take, under the same conditions, a game fish over 20 lbs., grand coup.
  • MEN: To hook and land with the fly, unassisted, without net or gaff, a trout or landlocked salmon over 4 lbs. or a salmon over 12 lbs., coup. To take, under the same conditions, a salmon over 25 lbs., grand coup.
  • 29. Indoor Fly-Casting. BOYS: To cast a fly with a rod of 5 oz. or less, not over 10 feet long, 40 feet, coup; 55 feet, grand coup. Lads: 65 feet, coup; 80 feet, grand coup. MEN: 80 feet, coup; 95 feet, grand coup.


Revised by Mr. L.S. Darling, of New York.

  • 30. With 1/4-oz. dummy frog, 5-foot rod, indoors, overhead casting, tournament style:—
    Boy class, 60 feet for coup; 70 feet for grand coup
    Lad " 80 " " " 90 " " " "
    Man " 100 " " " 120 " " " "
    If out of doors, add 10 per cent to each of the distances.


  • 31. To ride a horse one mile in three minutes, clearing a 4-foot hurdle and an 8-foot water-jump,
    counts coup; to do it in two minutes, clearing a 5-foot hurdle and a 12-foot water-jump, grand coup.
  • 32. Trick-riding. To pick up one's hat from the ground while at full gallop on a horse of not less than 13 hands counts coup.
    To do it three times without failure, from each side, with horse of at least 15 hands, counts grand coup.
  • 33. Lasso. To catch 10 horses or cattle in corral, with 10 throws of the lasso, counts coup; to catch 10 on the range in 10 throws counts a grand coup.
  • 33a. Lasso. To catch a horse or beef by each of his four feet in four successive throws, grand coup.
  • 34. Diamond hitch. Pack a horse with not less than 100 pounds of stuff, with diamond hitch, to hold during eight hours of travel, coup. Ten days in succession, a grand coup.

(Open to men only)

Everything that can be said in favor of firearms for use in general sport applies to the rifle only (and its understudy the revolver). The scatter-gun has no official existence for us. It is ruination to the marksman's power and should be abolished. A rifle range is a desirable adjunct of all grown-up camps. Honors are awarded according to the army standards.

  • 35. Revolver-Shot. Target 4x4 feet. Bull's-eye 8 inches (counts 4 points). Inner ring 2 feet (3 points). Outer, the rest of target (2 points).
    Distance, 30 yards.

    96 shots divided in any number up to six days, one hand, standing:—
    250 points count coup; 300, grand coup.
  • 35a. Half with left hand only; half with right only:—230 points, coup; 260 grand coup.
  • 36. Rifleman. To be a marksman according to militia standards, a coup; to be a sharpshooter, a grand coup.


Revised by Mr. Will H. Thompson, of Seattle, Wash.

  • 37. Make a total score of 300 with 60 shots (in one or two meets), 4-foot target at 40 yards (or 3-foot target at 30 yards), for coup; make 400 for grand coup.
  • 38. Shoot so fast and far as to have 6 arrows in the air at once, for coup; 7, for grand coup. (According to Catlin the record is 8.)
  • 39. For children (under 10), to send an arrow 90 yards, coup; 115 yards, grand coup. For boys (10 to 14), to send an arrow 125 yards, coup; 150, grand coup. For lads (14 to 18), to send an arrow 150 yards, coup; 175, grand coup. For men (over 18), to send an arrow 240 yards, coup; 275, grand coup.
  • 40. To hit the Burlap Deer in the heart, first shot:—
    For boys at 45 yards, coup; 55 yards, grand coup
    " lads " 60 " " 70 " " "
    " men " 75 " " 85 " " "
    (The heart is 9 inches across.)

  • set.1906.2012.001.062.jpg
  • 41. MOUNTAIN-CLIMBING (All afoot)
    (Not open to boys, i.e., those under 14)
    The exploits in this class are repeaters.
In Great Britain: Ben Macdhuie;
Ben Nevis; Ben Lomond; Ben
Cruachan; Snowdon; Helvellyn.
In Europe: Vesuvius.
In North America: Mt. Washington;
Electric Peak, Wyo.
In Europe: Mt Blanc; Monte
Rosa; Breithorn; Monte Viso;
In North America: St. Helen's;
Adams; Shasta; Hood; Rainier.
In Africa: Teneriffe.
In Europe: Mt. Blanc; Breithorn: Etna.
In North America: Pike's Peak;
Shasta; Adams.
In Asia: Fujiyama; Tabor.
This exploit is a repeater.
In Europe: Matterhorn;
Wetterhorn; Aig. Verte; Aig. du
Dru; Aig. du Geant; Point des
Ecrins; Ortler-Spitze.
In South America: Chimborazo;
Cotopaxi; Illimani; Aconcagua.
In Asia: Everest*; Kinchinjunga*;
In Africa: Kilimandjaro.
This exploit is a repeater.

Other mountains will be added later.


  • 42. To spot the Rabbit three times at 60 yards, or to distinguish and map out correctly six Pleiades and see clearly the "Pappoose (Alcor) on the Squaw's (Mizar) back," counts a coup; to spot the Rabbit three times at 70 yards and see seven Pleiades and *Means "not yet climbed." The first one to climb a standard peak gets double honors; one for climb, one for first climb.
    the Pappoose counts a far-sight grand coup. (Those who habitually wear glasses may use them in this test.) See Far-sight among the games, p. 41.
  • 43. To make a 75 score in ten tries in the game of Quicksight, with ten counters, counts coup; a 95 score counts a grand coup. (See Quicksight among the games, p. 40.)


Advisers: J.E. Sullivan, Secretary of Amateur Athletic Union; Dr. Luther M. Gulick, Director of Physical Training, New York Public Schools.

44. Coup: Walk 3½
measured miles in 1 hr.
(heel and toe).
Grand Coup: 4 miles.
Coup: 4½ miles in
1 hr.
Grand Coup: 5 m.
Coup: 5½ miles.
Grand Coup: 6½ miles.
(Rec. 7 miles, 1318
45. Coup: Walk ¼
mile in 4 m.
Grand Coup: ¼ mile
in 3 ½ m.
Coup: ¼ mile in 3 m.
Grand Coup: ¼
mile in 2½ m.
Coup: ¼ mile, 1 m.
50 s.
Grand Coup: 1 m.
40 s.
(Rec. 1 m. 23 s.)
46. Coup: Walk 1
mile in 12 m.
Grand Coup: 1 mile
in 11 m.
Coup: 1 mile in
10 m.
Grand Coup: 1
mile in 9½ m.
Coup: 1 mile in 8½ m.
Grand Coup: 1 mile,
7 m. 45 s.
(Rec. 6 m. 29⅗ s.)

*If a standard is desired for those under ten, it may be made by taking the coup of the 14-year-olds as the unit and subtracting 7½ and 15 per cent respectively for grand coup and coup when it is distance, or adding to it 7½ and 15 per cent when it is time.

**Records according to Spalding's Almanac.


ATHLETICS (Continued)

47. Coup: Run 100
yds. in 14 s.
Grand Coup: 100 yds.
in 13 s.
Coup: 100 yds. in
12⅗ s.
Grand Coup: 100
yds. in 11⅘ s.
Coup: 100 yds in
10⅘ s.
Grand Coup: 100 yds.
in 10⅖ s.
(Rec. 9⅗ s.)
48. Not open. Coup: Run 220
yds. in 28 s.
Grand Coup: 26 s.
Coup: 220 yds. in
26 s.
Grand Coup: in 24 s.
(Rec. 21⁹⁵⁄₁₀₀ s.)
49. Not open. Not open. Coup: Run 1 mile in
5 m.
Grand Coup: in 4 m.
45 s.
(Rec. 4 m. 15⅗ s.)
50. Not open. Not open. Coup: Run 10 miles
in 80 m.
Grand Coup: in 70 m.
(Rec. 52 m. 38⅖ s.)
51. Coup: Standing
high jump without
weights, 3 ft.
Grand Coup: 3 ft.
4 in.
Coup: 3 ft. 4 in.
Grand Coup: 3 ft.
9 in.
Coup: 4 ft. 2 in.
Grand Coup: 4 ft. 6
(Rec. 5 ft. 5¼ in.)

If a standard is desired for those under ten, it may be made by taking the coup of the 14-year-olds as the unit and subtracting 7½and 15 per cent respectively for grand coup and coup when it is distance, or adding to it 7½ and 15 per cent when it is time.


ATHLETICS (Continued)

52. Coup: Running
high jump without
weights, 3 ft. 6 in.
Grand Coup: 4 ft.
Coup: 4 ft.
Grand Coup: 4 ft.
6 in.
Coup: 5 ft. 2 in.
Grand Coup: 5 ft. 6 in.
(Rec. 6 ft. 5⅝ in.)
53. Coup: Standing
broad jump without
weights, 6 ft.
Grand Coup: 6½ ft.
Coup: 7 ft.
Grand Coup: 8 ft.
Coup: 9 ft.
Grand Coup: 10 ft.
(Rec. 11 ft. 3½ in.)
54. Coup: Running
broad jump without
weights, 13 ft.
Grand Coup: 14 ft.
Coup: 15½ ft.
Grand Coup: 16 1/2
Coup: 18 ft.
Grand Coup: 20 ft.
(Rec. 24 ft. 7¼ in.)
55. Coup: Hop, step,
and jump, without
weights, or run, 16 ft.
Grand Coup: 19 ft.
Coup: 20 ft.
Grand Coup: 22 ft.
Coup: 23 ft.
Grand Coup: 26 ft.
(Rec. 30 ft. 3 in.)
56. Not open. Coup: Hammer-
throw (12 lbs.), 3½-
ft. handle, from a
7-ft. circle, both
hands, 60 ft.
Grand Coup: 70 ft.
Coup: (16 lbs.) 65 ft.
Grand Coup: (16
lbs.) 75 ft.
(Rec. 100 ft. 5 in.)

*If a standard is desired for those under ten, it may be made by taking the coup of the 14-year-olds as the unit and subtracting 7½ and 15 per cent respectively for grand coup and coup when it is distance, or adding to it 7½ and 15 per cent when it is time.


ATHLETICS (Continued)

57. Coup: Shot put
from a 7-ft. circle (12
lbs.), 18 ft.
Grand Coup: 20 ft.
Coup: (12 lbs.) 25 ft.
Grand Coup: 28 ft.
Coup: (16 lbs.) 36 ft.
Grand Coup: (16
lbs.) 40 ft. (Rec. 47 ft.)
58. Throw regulation
baseball, 60 yds.
Grand Coup: 70 yds.
Coup: 75 yds.
Grand Coup: 95
Coup: 100 yds.
Grand Coup: 110 yds.
(Rec. 127 yds. 2 1/2 in.)
59. Coup: Batting
baseball, 55 yds.
Grand Coup: 65 yds.
Coup: 70 yds.
Grand Coup: 95 yds.
Coup: 95 yds.
Grand Coup: 105 yds.
(Rec. 118 yds. 10 in.)
60. Coup: Throwing
the ball with Lacrosse,
90 yds.
Grand Coup: 100 yds.
Coup: 110 yds.
Grand Coup: 130
Coup: 130 yds.
Grand Coup: 150 yds.
(Rec. 165 yds. 2 ft. 7 1/2
61. Coup: To kick
(drop) a goal in football,
30 yds.
Grand Coup: 35 yds.
Coup: 40 yds.
Grand Coup: 45
Coup: 50 yds.
Grand Coup: 55 yds.
(Rec. 63 yds. 11 in.)
62. May try if they
May try if they
Grand Coup: Put two
Rugby footballs in mid-
dle of Rugby field and
kick a right and left

*If a Standard is desired for those under ten, it may be made by taking the coup of the 14-year-olds as the unit and subtracting 7½ and 15 per cent respectively for grand coup and coup when it is distance, or adding to it 7½ and 15 per cent when it is time.


ATHLETICS (Continued)

63. Coup: To climb
the 18-ft. rope, hands
only used, 13 s.
Grand Coup: 11 s.
Coup: 9 s.
Grand Coup: 7 s.
Coup: 6 s.
Grand Coup: 5 s.
(Rec. 3⅗ s.)
64. Coup: To chin
the bar 4 times.
Grand Coup: 6 times.
Coup: 6 times
Grand Coup: 10
Coup: 10 times.
Grand Coup: 15
(Rec. 39 times.)
65. May try if they
Coup: To chin the
bar with one hand
Grand Coup: With
each hand in suc-
Coup: To chin the
bar with each hand.
Grand Coup: With
each hand twice.
(Rec. 12 times.)
66. Coup: Skate 100
yds. in 15 s.
Grand Coup: 13 s.
Coup: 13 s.
Grand Coup: 12 s.
Coup: 11⅕ s.
Grand Coup: 10⅖ s.
(Rec. with wind, 9 s.)
67. Coup: Row
(single sculls) 1 mile in
11 m.
Grand Coup: 10 m.
Coup: 9 m.
Grand Coup: 8 m.
Coup: 7 m. 25 s.
Grand Coup: 6 m.
50 s.
68. Coup: Paddle
(single) 1 mile in 13 m.
Grand Coup: 12 m.
Coup: 12 m.
Grand Coup: 11 m.
Coup: 10 m.
Grand Coup: 9 m.

*If a standard is desired for those under ten, it may be made by taking the coup of the 14-year-olds as the unit and subtracting 7½ and 15 per cent respectively for grand coup and coup when it is distance, or adding to it 7½ and 15 per cent when it is time.


ATHLETICS (Continued)

69. Coup: Swim 100
yds. in any time at all.
Grand Coup: 200 yds.
in 4 m.
Coup: Swim 100
yds. in any time at
Grand Coup: 200
yds. in 3 m. 45 s.
Coup: Swim 100 yds.
in any time at all.
Grand Coup: 200 yds.
in 3 m. (Rec. 2 m. 20 s.)
70. Not open. Coup: Swim 1 mile
in 50 m.
Grand Coup: in 45
Coup: 45 m.
Grand Coup: 35 m.
(Rec. 24 m. 46⅘ s.)
71. Not open. Coup (Medley
Race): Go 400
yds.; running 100,
rowing 100, walk-
ing 100, and swim-
ming 100 (in any
order) in 6 m.
Grand Coup: 5 m.
Coup: 4½ m.
Grand Coup: 4 m.
72. Not open. Coup: On bicycle
1 mile 3 m. 30 s.
Grand Coup: 3 m.
Coup: 1 mile 2 m.
50 s.
Grand Coup: 2 m.
20 s.

*If a standard is desired for those under ten, it may be made by taking the coup of the 14-year-olds as the unit and subtracting 7½ and 15 per cent respectively for grand coup and coup when it is distance, or adding to it 7½ and 15 per cent when it is time.


ATHLETICS (Concluded)

The following honors are open to those only who are 21 years old or over:

  • 73. Coup: Walk 10 miles in 1 hr. 45 m. Grand Coup: 1 hr. 30 m. (Rec. 1 hr. 17 m. 40¾ s.)
  • 74. Coup: Walk 100 miles in 30 hrs. Grand Coup: in 25 hrs. (Rec. 21 hrs. 42 s.)
  • 75. Coup: Swim 5 miles in 4 hours. Grand Coup: in 3½ hours. (Rec. 2 hrs. 58 m. ½ s.)
  • 76. Coup: Swim 10 miles in any time.
  • 77. Grand Coup: Swim 15 miles in any time.
  • 78. Coup: Bicycle, 100 miles in one day according to L.A.W. rules.
    Grand Coup: 200 miles.


Until further notice the National Council will allow honors on all properly recognized outdoor exploits, not herein listed, on the following general basis: Contestants over eighteen must make 90 per cent of the amateur record distance for coup, and 95 per cent for grand coup; or if it is a time exploit, not exceeding the record by 10 per cent, for coup; 5 per cent for grand coup. Contestants under eighteen and over fourteen must make 85 and 90 per cent, or not exceed time by more than 15 and 10 per cent. Those under fourteen must make 80 and 85 per cent of distance and not exceed time by more than 20 and 15 per cent. The records are as given in Spalding's Official Athletic Almanac (10 cents of all booksellers).


Revised by Mr. Frank M. Chapman, of the American Museum of Natural History, New York City.

  • 79. Know and name correctly 25 native wild quadrupeds, for coup; know and name correctly 50, and tell something about each, for grand coup.
  • 80. Know and draw unmistakable pictures of 25 tracks of our four-foot animals, for coup; of 50 for grand coup.
  • 81. Know and name correctly 100 of our native
    birds as seen mounted in a museum, the female and young to count separately when they are wholly different from the male. This counts coup; 200 birds for grand coup.
  • 82. Know and name correctly 50 wild birds in the field; this counts coup; 100, grand coup.
  • 83. Recognize 50 wild birds by note, for coup; 100 for grand coup.
  • 84. Know and name 10 turtles for coup, 20 for grand coup, with something interesting about each.
  • 85. Know and name 10 different snakes, telling which are poisonous, for coup; 20 snakes for grand coup.
  • 86. Know and name correctly 10 Batrachians for coup; 20 for grand coup.
  • 87. Know and name 25 fish, for coup; 50 fish for grand coup.

Revised by Mr. John Burroughs.

  • 88. Know and name 25 native land and fresh water shells, for coup; 50 for grand coup.
  • 89. Know and name 25 moths, for coup; 50 for grand coup.
  • 90. Know and name 25 butterflies, for coup; 50 butterflies for grand coup.
  • 91. Know and name 50 other insects, for coup; 100 for grand coup.

  • set.1906.2012.001.072.jpg
  • 92. Know and name correctly, i.e., with the accepted English names, according to any standard authority, 25 trees, and tell something interesting about them, counts coup; 50 for grand coup.
  • 93. Know and name correctly 50 of our wild flowers, for coup; 100 for grand coup.
  • 94. Know and name correctly 25 of our wild ferns, for coup; 50 for grand coup.
  • 95. Know and name correctly 25 of our native mosses, for coup; 50 for grand coup.
  • 96. Know and name 50 common toadstools or mushrooms, for coup; 100 for grand coup.


Revised by Prof. Charles D. Walcott, Chief U.S. Geological Survey

  • 97. Paleontology. Know and name, referring to their proper strata, 50 native fossils, for coup; 100 for grand coup.
  • 98. Mineralogy. Know and name 50 minerals, for coup; 100 for grand coup.
  • 99. Geology. Know and name and describe the 14 great divisions of the earth's crust, according to Geikie, also define watershed, delta, drift, fault, glacier, terrace, stratum, dip, and identify 10 different kinds of rock, for coup. In addition to the first, define sediment, metamorphic, anticlinal, synclinal, moraine, coal,
    metal, mineral, petroleum, and identify in all 20 kinds of rock, for grand coup.


Revised by Mr. A. Radclyffe Dugmore, of "Country Life," New York.

  • 100. Make a good recognizable photograph of any wild bird larger than a robin, while on its nest, the bird itself to be at least one inch long on plate, for coup.
  • 101. Make a good photograph of a Ruffed Grouse drumming, the bird to be at least one inch long on plate, for grand coup.
  • 102. Make a good recognizable photograph of a wild animal in the air, for coup, or grand coup, according to merit, the image to be at least one inch long on the plate.
  • 103. Ditto for a fish.
  • 104. Get a good photograph of any large wild animal in its native surroundings, and not looking at you, the animal to be at least one inch long on the plate, for coup, or grand coup, according to merit.
    (As these are tests of Woodcraft, menagerie animals do not count.)

This list is made by the National Council. The exploits are founded on world-wide standards, and
with the help of the best experts. The Council will gladly consider any suggestion, but it must be understood that no local tribe has any power to add to or vary the exploits in any way whatsoever.



Published by DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & CO.
133 East 16th Street, New York City

A book of adventure and woodcraft and camping out for boys, telling how to make bows, arrows, moccasins, costumes, teepee, war-bonnet, etc., and how to make a fire with rubbing sticks, read Indian signs, etc. Price, $1.75 net.

A musical play in which the parts of Lobo, Wahb, Vixen, etc., are taken by boys and girls. Price, 50c.

153 Fifth Avenue, New York City

The stories of Lobo, Silverspot, Molly Cottontail, Bingo, Vixen, The Pacing Mustang, Wully and Redruff. Price, $2.00.

This is a school edition of the above, with some of the stories and many of the pictures left out. Price, 50c net.

The story of a long hunt that ended without a tragedy. Price, $1.50.

The stories of Krag, Randy, Johnny Bear, The Mother Teal, Chink, The Kangaroo Rat, and Tito, the Coyote. Price, $1.75 net.

This is a school edition of the above, with some of the stories and many of the pictures left out. Price, 50c net.


Twelve large pictures for framing (no text), viz., Krag, Lobo, Tito Cub, Kangaroo Rat, Grizzly, Buffalo, Bear Family, Johnny Bear, Sandhill Stag, Coon Family, Courtaut the Wolf, Tito and her family. Price, $6.00.

The story of a big California Grizzly that is living yet. Price, $1.25 net.

The stories of a Slum Cat, a Homing Pigeon, The Wolf that Won, A Lynx, A Jackrabbit, A Bull-terrier, The Winnipeg Wolf and A White Reindeer. Price, $1.75 net.

To be issued shortly.

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The story of old Wahb from Cub-hood to the scene in Death Gulch. Price, $1.50.

A collection of fables, woodland verses, and camp stories. Price, $1.25 net.


Published by DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & CO.

A book of outdoor adventures and camping for women and girls. How to dress for it, where to go, and how to profit the most by camp life. Price, $2.00.





Henry Holt & Co., New York City. Price, $2.00



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Published by Doubleday, Page & Co. Sold by subscription. Price on application.

Volume I contains the general introduction to the library, by John Burroughs, and Neltje Blanchan gives an introductory acquaintance with 150 birds usually found in the gardens, meadows, and woods about our homes. The birds are classified in five different ways, making identification immediately possible without technical knowledge. There are 48 plates in colors, and 16 in black-and-white.

Volume II, by Neltje Blanchan, is devoted to "Birds that Hunt and are Hunted." G.O. Shields has written the introduction to this account of 170 birds of prey, game birds, and waterfowl. 64 color plates and 16 plates in black-and-white.

Volume III, by A. Radclyffe Dugmore, is a complete manual of bird's-nests, eggs, and breeding habits, containing also valuable hints on nature photography, by an author whose intimate photographs of bird life have made him famous. 16 color plates and 82 other pictures.

Volume IV is the only book which sums up in popular form the mass of new knowledge about American mammals which
science has gathered during the last quarter of a century. By Witmer Stone and William Everitt Cram. The 80 full pages of pictures are marvellous feats of the camera, nearly all being photographed from life, generally of wild animals. There are also eight colored plates.

Volume V, by David Starr Jordan and Barton W. Evermann, fills a long-felt need in popular scientific works, being a full account of the life-histories and methods of capture of North American food and game fish. With 10 lithographed color plates, 100 photographs of live fish in the water, and 200 text cuts.

Volume VI is by Dr. W. J. Holland, who has introduced thousands of readers to the delightful study of butterflies and caterpillars. Its 48 color plates are the finest ever made by the three-color photographic process, and in these and the text cuts fully a thousand different species of butterflies are shown. There are chapters on the capture and preservation of butterflies.

Volume VII, also by Dr. Holland, takes up the subject of moths. There are 1,500 figures in the colored plates and 300 text cuts of the moths of North America.

Volume VIII, by Dr. L. O. Howard, treats of bees, wasps, ants, grasshoppers, flies, and other North American insects, admirably suited to the general reader. It has 16 color plates and 32 black-and-white, all photographed from the insects themselves, besides nearly 300 text cuts.

Volume IX, by Neltje Blanchan, enables any one to identify all the common wild flowers of the North American continent, and introduces the reader to their marvellous life-histories and the part which insects play in these. Illustrations: 32 color plates and 48 black-and-white, all from photographs of the actual flower.

Volume X, by Nina L. Marshall, is an invaluable aid to all who are interested in fungi as food or as a limitless subject of study. 24 color plates and 40 black-and-white from photographs by Mr. and Miss Anderson.

Volume XI, by Julia E. Rogers, has many features that no other work on trees approaches. It tells how to know the trees; the uses and value of trees; the care of trees; how to grow trees; the preservation of forests. The 350 beautiful photographic illustrations, by A. R. Dugmore, show bud, blossoms, full leaf, fruit,
and the wood of all the important species, and there are 16 plates in color.

Volume XII is a most fascinating work by Mary C. Dickerson, and contains a wealth of original observation and pioneer work on frogs and toads that is a real contribution to science. Sixteen plates in color and nearly 300 black-and-white photographs from life by the author.



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